KICKBOXING HISTORY - Urban Boxing
Japanese kickboxing originated in the late 1950s, with competitions held since then.
American kickboxing originated in the 1970s and was brought to prominence in September 1974, when the Professional Karate Association (PKA) held the first World Championships. Historically, kickboxing can be considered a hybrid martial art formed from the combination of elements of various traditional styles. This approach became increasingly popular since the 1970s, and since the 1990s, kickboxing has contributed to the emergence of mixed martial arts via further hybridization with ground fighting techniques from Brazilian jiu-jitsu and folk wrestling.
There is no single international governing body. International governing bodies include International Combat Organisation, World Association of Kickboxing Organizations, World Kickboxing Association, International Sport Karate Association, International Kickboxing Federation, World Kickboxing Network, among others.
Punching techniques are very much identical to boxing punches, including
Jab – straight punch from the front hand. The arm extends from the side of the torso which is quickly turned concurrently with this action. A jab may be directed at an opponent's head or body, and is often used in conjunction with the cross.
Cross – straight punch from the back hand
Hook – rounded punch to either the head or body in an arching motion, usually not scored in points scoring
Uppercut – rising punch striking to the chin
Short straight-punch usually striking to the chin
Backfist usually from the front hand, reverse-back fist and spinning back-fist both usually from the back hand – are strikes to the head, raising the arm and bending the arm at the elbow and then straightening the arm quickly to strike to the side of the head with the rear of the knuckles.
The standard kicking techniques are:
Front kick or push Kick/high Kick – Striking face or chest on with the balls of the footSide kick – Striking with the heel of the foot with leg parallel to the ground, can be performed to either the head, leg or bodySemi-circular kick or forty five degree roundhouse kickRoundhouse kick or circle kick – Striking with the front of the foot or the shin to the head or the body in a chopping motion
Knee and elbow strikes
The knee and elbow techniques in Japanese kickboxing, indicative of its Muay Thai heritage, are the main difference that separates this style from other kickboxing rules. See ti sok and ti khao for details.
Straight knee (long-range knee kick or front heel kick). This knee strike is delivered with the back or reverse foot against an opponent's stomach, groin, hip or spine an opponent forward by the neck, shoulder or arm.
Flying knee – can be delivered with the front or back foot. It makes an explosive snap upwards to strike an opponent's face, chin, throat or chest.
Hook knee – can be delivered with the front or back foot. It makes a half circle spin and strikes the sides of an opponent.
Side knee – is a highly-deceptive knee technique used in close-range fighting. The knee is lifted to the toes or lifted up, and is snapped to left and right, striking an opponent's sensitive knee joints, insides of thighs, groin.
Side elbow - most commonly used elbow, commonly seen in Thai boxing fights
Upward elbow - used in the clinch to strike the opponent’s nose, chin or both
Downward elbow - used as a replacement to an overhand striking down from just under the forehead to the chin
There are three main defensive positions (guards or styles) used in kickboxing. Within each style, there is considerable variation among fighters, as some fighters may have their guard higher for more head protection while others have their guard lower to provide better protection against body punches. Many fighters vary their defensive style throughout a bout in order to adapt to the situation of the moment, choosing the position best suited to protect them.
Slip – Slipping rotates the body slightly so that an incoming punch passes harmlessly next to the head. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer sharply rotates the hips and shoulders. This turns the chin sideways and allows the punch to "slip" past. Muhammad Ali was famous for extremely fast and close slips.
Bob and weave – bobbing moves the head laterally and beneath an incoming punch. As the opponent's punch arrives, the kickboxer bends the legs quickly and simultaneously shifts the body either slightly right or left. Once the punch has been evaded, the kickboxer "weaves" back to an upright position, emerging on either the outside or inside of the opponent's still-extended arm. To move outside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the outside". To move inside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the inside".
Parry/Block – Parrying or blocking uses the kickboxer's hands as defensive tools to deflect incoming attacks. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer delivers a sharp, lateral, open-handed blow to the opponent's wrist or forearm, redirecting the punch.
The cover-up – Covering up is the last opportunity to avoid an incoming strike to an unprotected face or body. Generally speaking, the hands are held high to protect the head and chin and the forearms are tucked against the torso to impede body shots. When protecting the body, the kickboxer rotates the hips and lets incoming punches "roll" off the guard. To protect the head, the kickboxer presses both fists against the front of the face with the forearms parallel and facing outwards. This type of guard is weak against attacks from below.